aerodynamic adj : of or relating to aerodynamics
Aerodynamics is a branch of dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a moving object. Aerodynamics is closely related to fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, with much theory shared between them. Aerodynamics is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, with the difference being that gas dynamics applies to all gases. Understanding the motion of air (often called a flow field) around an object enables the calculation of forces and moments acting on the object. Typical properties calculated for a flow field include velocity, pressure, density and temperature as a function of position and time. By defining a control volume around the flow field, equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy can be defined and used to solve for the properties. The use of aerodynamics through mathematical analysis, empirical approximation and wind tunnel experimentation form the scientific basis for heavier-than-air flight.
Aerodynamic problems can be identified in a number of ways. The flow environment defines the first classification criterion. External aerodynamics is the study of flow around solid objects of various shapes. Evaluating the lift and drag on an airplane, the shock waves that form in front of the nose of a rocket or the flow of air over a hard drive head are examples of external aerodynamics. Internal aerodynamics is the study of flow through passages in solid objects. For instance, internal aerodynamics encompasses the study of the airflow through a jet engine or through an air conditioning pipe.
The ratio of the problem's characteristic flow speed to the speed of sound comprises a second classification of aerodynamic problems. A problem is called subsonic if all the speeds in the problem are less than the speed of sound, transonic if speeds both below and above the speed of sound are present (normally when the characteristic speed is approximately the speed of sound), supersonic when the characteristic flow speed is greater than the speed of sound, and hypersonic when the flow speed is much greater than the speed of sound. Aerodynamicists disagree over the precise definition of hypersonic flow; minimum Mach numbers for hypersonic flow range from 3 to 12. Most aerodynamicists use numbers between 5 and 8.
The influence of viscosity in the flow dictates a third classification. Some problems involve only negligible viscous effects on the solution, in which case viscosity can be considered to be nonexistent. The approximations to these problems are called inviscid flows. Flows for which viscosity cannot be neglected are called viscous flows.
Continuity assumptionGases are composed of molecules which collide with one another and solid objects. If density and velocity are taken to be well-defined at infinitely small points, and are assumed to vary continuously from one point to another, the discrete molecular nature of a gas is ignored.
The continuity assumption becomes less valid as a gas becomes more rarefied. In these cases, statistical mechanics is a more valid method of solving the problem than aerodynamics.
Laws of ConservationAerodynamic problems are solved using the conservation laws, or equations derived from the conservation laws. In aerodynamics, three conservation laws are used:
- Conservation of mass: Matter is not created or destroyed. If a certain mass of fluid enters a volume, it must either exit the volume or increase the mass inside the volume. In a steady-state process mass cannot accumulate inside the volume and this law is expressed in the continuity equation.
- Conservation of momentum: Also called Newton's third law of motion. The initial momentum (mass times velocity) of a system must equal the final momentum of the system.
- Conservation of energy: Although it can be converted from one form to another, the total energy in a given system remains constant.
Incompressible aerodynamicsAn incompressible flow is characterized by a constant density despite flowing over surfaces or inside ducts. A flow can be considered incompressible as long as its speed is low. For higher speeds, the flow will begin to compress as it comes into contact with surfaces. The Mach number is used to distinguish between incompressible and compressible flows.
Subsonic flowSubsonic (or low-speed) aerodynamics is the study of inviscid, incompressible and irrotational aerodynamics where the differential equations used are a simplified version of the governing equations of fluid dynamics.. It is a special case of Subsonic aerodynamics.
In solving a subsonic problem, one decision to be made by the aerodynamicist is whether to incorporate the effects of compressibility. Compressibility is a description of the amount of change of density in the problem. When the effects of compressibility on the solution are small, the aerodynamicist may choose to assume that density is constant. The problem is then an incompressible low-speed aerodynamics problem. When the density is allowed to vary, the problem is called a compressible problem. In air, compressibility effects are usually ignored when the Mach number in the flow does not exceed 0.3 (about 335 feet per second or 228 miles per hour or 102 meters per second at 60oF). Above 0.3, the problem should be solved using compressible aerodynamics.
Compressible aerodynamicsAccording to the theory of aerodynamics, a flow is considered to be compressible if its change in density with respect to pressure is non-zero along a streamline. In short, this means that, unlike incompressible flow, changes in density must be considered. In general, this is the case where the Mach number in part or all of the flow exceeds 0.3. The Mach .3 value is rather arbitrary, but it is used because gas flows with a Mach number below that value demonstrate changes in density with respect to the change in pressure of less than 5%. Furthermore, that maximum 5% density change occurs at the stagnation point of an object immersed in the gas flow and the density changes around the rest of the object will be significantly lower. Transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flows are all compressible.
Transonic flowThe term Transonic refers to a range of velocities just below and above the local speed of sound (generally taken as Mach 0.8–1.2). It is defined as the range of speeds between the critical Mach number, when some parts of the airflow over an aircraft become supersonic, and a higher speed, typically near Mach 1.2, when all of the airflow is supersonic. Between these speeds some of the airflow is supersonic, and some is not.
Supersonic flowSupersonic aerodynamic problems are those involving flow speeds greater than the speed of sound. Calculating the lift on the Concorde during cruise can be an example of a supersonic aerodynamic problem.
Supersonic flow behaves very differently from subsonic flow. Fluids react to differences in pressure; pressure changes are how a fluid is "told" to respond to its environment. Therefore, since sound is in fact an infinitesimal pressure difference propagating through a fluid, the speed of sound in that fluid can be considered the fastest speed that "information" can travel in the flow. This difference most obviously manifests itself in the case of a fluid striking an object. In front of that object, the fluid builds up a stagnation pressure as impact with the object brings the moving fluid to rest. In fluid traveling at subsonic speed, this pressure disturbance can propagate upstream, changing the flow pattern ahead of the object and giving the impression that the fluid "knows" the object is there and is avoiding it. However, in a supersonic flow, the pressure disturbance cannot propagate upstream. Thus, when the fluid finally does strike the object, it is forced to change its properties -- temperature, density, pressure, and Mach number -- in an extremely violent and irreversible fashion called a shock wave. The presence of shock waves, along with the compressibility effects of high-velocity (see Reynolds number) fluids, is the central difference between supersonic and subsonic aerodynamics problems.
Hypersonic flowIn aerodynamics, hypersonic speeds are speeds that are highly supersonic. In the 1970s, the term generally came to refer to speeds of Mach 5 (5 times the speed of sound) and above. The hypersonic regime is a subset of the supersonic regime. Hypersonic flow is characterized by high temperature flow behind a shock wave, viscous interaction, and chemical dissociation of gas.
Associated terminologyThe incompressible and compressible flow regimes produce many associated phenomena, such as boundary layers and turbulence.
Boundary layersThe concept of a boundary layer is important in many aerodynamic problems. The viscosity and fluid friction in the air is approximated as being significant only in this thin layer. This principle makes aerodynamics much more tractable mathematically.
TurbulenceIn aerodynamics, turbulence is characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes in the flow. This includes low momentum diffusion, high momentum convection, and rapid variation of pressure and velocity in space and time. Flow that is not turbulent is called laminar flow.
Aerodynamics in other fieldsfurther Automotive aerodynamics Aerodynamics is important in a number of applications other than aerospace engineering. It is a significant factor in any type of vehicle design, including automobiles. It is important in the prediction of forces and moments in sailing. It is used in the design of large components such as hard drive heads. Structural engineers also use aerodynamics, and particularly aeroelasticity, to calculate wind loads in the design of large buildings and bridges. Urban aerodynamics seeks to help town planners and designers improve comfort in outdoor spaces, create urban microclimates and reduce the effects of urban pollution. The field of environmental aerodynamics studies the ways atmospheric circulation and flight mechanics affect ecosystems. The aerodynamics of internal passages is important in heating/ventilation, gas piping, and in automotive engines where detailed flow patterns strongly affect the performance of the engine.
- List of aerospace engineering topics
- List of engineering topics
- Automotive aerodynamics
- Fluid dynamics
- Nose cone design
- Bernoulli's principle
- Navier-Stokes equations
- Center of pressure
- Computational Fluid Dynamics
- Transonic flows.
- Supersonic flows.
- Hypersonic flows.
- Sound barrier
Further readingGeneral Aerodynamics
- Fundamentals of Aerodynamics
- Aerodynamics for Engineers
- Illustrated Guide to Aerodynamics
- Introduction to Aerodynamics
- Low-Speed Aerodynamics
- Fundamentals of Transonic Flow
- Transonic Aerodynamics
- Elements of Aerodynamics of Supersonic Flows
- The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow, Volume 1
- Modern Compressible Flow
- Elements of Gasdynamics
- Mathematical Theory of Compressible Fluid Flow
- Compressible Fluid Dynamics with Personal Computer Applications
- Hypersonic and High Temperature Gas Dynamics
- Hypersonic Inviscid Flow
History of Aerodynamics
- Progress in Flying Machines
- Aerodynamics: Selected Topics in the Light of Their Historical Development
- A History of Aerodynamics: And Its Impact on Flying Machines
Aerodynamics Related to Engineering
- Race Car Aerodynamics: Designing for Speed
- Road Vehicle Aerodynamic Design
- Aerodynamics of Wings and Bodies
- Theory of Wing Sections: Including a Summary of Airfoil Data
- Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics
- Helicopter Performance, Stability, and Control
- Basic Helicopter Aerodynamics: An Account of First Principles in the Fluid Mechanics and Flight Dynamics of the Single Rotor Helicopter
- Missile Aerodynamics
- Model Aircraft Aerodynamics
Related Branches of Aerodynamics
- Basics of Aerothermodynamics
- Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics
- An Introduction to the Theory of Aeroelasticity
- Boundary Layers
- Laminar Boundary Layers
- A First Course in Turbulence
- Turbulent Flows
- NASA Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics
- Aerodynamics for Students
- Applied Aerodynamics: A Digital Textbook
- Aerodynamics and Race Car Tuning
- Aerodynamic Related Projects
- Supersonic wing design
- eFluids Bicycle Aerodynamics
- Application of Aerodynamics in Formula One (F1)
- Aerodynamics in Car Racing
- Aerodynamics of Birds
- Aerodynamics and dragonfly wings
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